1 Recent years have witnessed a marked increase across the globe in the number of arbitral and other institutions with specialized, industry-specific arbitration rules or accumulated know-how in this area.
2 Three institutions are covered here in more detail:
3 Other examples are:
- Hong Kong's Financial Dispute Resolution Centre (FDRC, since 2011),
- the United States' Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA, since 2007),
- the Spanish Comité Bancario y Financiero de Arbitraje de la Asociación Europea de Arbitraje (CByF, since 2009),
- the Spanish Dirimir Incidencias entre Bancos (DIRIBAN), an interbank dispute settlement mechanism created by the Spanish Banking Association (Asociación Española de Banca, AEB) with the support of Spain's central bank and aimed at resolving disputes between its members,
- the Italian Arbitro Bancario e Finanziario (ABF, since 2005) which has been established to settle disputes between financial intermediaries and their customers,
- the Brasilian Câmara do Mercado ("Market Chamber", since 2001) which offers a specialized forum for the resolution of disputes related to capital markets and corporate laws, concerning companies whose stocks are listed in the new market level of the Brasilian stock exchange B3 ("B3 S.A. - Brasil, Bolsa, Balcão", B3 - Brazil Stock Exchange and Over-the-Counter Market, formerly BM & FBOVESPA), but also for the management of any other disputes between individuals and companies, as long as they are related to business law,
- the Financial Disputes Arbitration Rules of the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC, effective as from 1 January 2015),
- the Chinese Beijing Financial Court (BFC, since 2021) and Shanghai Financial Court (since 2018).